Cultural differences in non verbal communication
Non verbal communication is what occurs without the need for words while we are attempting to communicate. It’s involved in any communication via body language and environmental context.
The two basic types of non verbal language are non verbal messages (which are produced by the body) and non verbal messages (produced by the external conditions – time, space, silence and even our clothes).
Why is non verbal communication important?
You may ask yourself why we need to communicate in a non verbal way, when we have words to express our thoughts? Non verbal communication is one of the key aspects of communication. It has many various functions such as repeating the verbal message e.g. pointing in a direction while explaining also it verbally. It is possible to regulate interactions e.g. use non verbal signs to show that the other person should speak or not speak. Furthermore, we can emphasize a verbal message by a verbal tone that indicates the actual meaning of the specific words. We can use it as a substitute for the verbal message by using gestures such as putting a finger to our lips to indicate the need for quiet or facial expressions like a nod instead of a yes.
Often we actually express most of our specific intention in a non verbal way. In addition to that, many non verbal expressions we consider to be accepted in our own culture can get us into trouble in other parts of the world or when we are working in an intercultural context.
Non verbal communication differences from culture to culture
Due to our cultural differences in non verbal communication, we can occasionally offend others unintentionally. The varying cultural backgrounds and our learned behavior specific to the culture defines every non verbal communication. Every culture interprets non verbal communication differently and we always have to consider that it is not a universal language, therefore miscommunication can occur when intercultural people do communicate.
I’d like to give you a few examples of differences in non verbal communication that may vary significantly depending upon cultural background:
Eye contact is one form of non verbal communication where the differences are most remarkable. Western cultures mostly consider eye contact to be a positive gesture. It shows respect, attentiveness, confidence and honesty. Other cultures such as Asian, Middle Eastern and Hispanic do not take it positively. Eye contact is taken as rude and even offensive, thus should should be avoided at all costs. In Eastern cultures women should look to avoid eye contact with men as it shows power or sexual interest.
In cultures in the Middle East, the head movement for “Yes” is just the opposite of the head movement for “Yes” in almost any other culture. You can imagine how confusing it can be. In such cases expressing “Yes” or “No” in a verbal communicative way would be much easier.
Hand and Arm Gestures
Hand and arm gestures as a form of non verbal communication also vary widely among cultures.
While in some cases a particular gesture means nothing to a representative of another culture, in other cases gestures such as a thumbs up can be interpreted differently. It is taken as an “Okay” sign in many cultures which is not offensive whereas it has a vulgar meaning in others such as Iran and Latin American.
Physical Space (Proxemics)
People from different cultures have a different tolerance for physical distance between each other. In Latin America and the Middle East the acceptable distance is much shorter than what most Europeans and Americans feel comfortable with. People have specific personal space which they do not want intruded. In some cultures, even close physical contact between strangers is acceptable.
Shaking hands is considered to be acceptable in many cultures, even between strangers. Similarly kissing, patting on the shoulder, hugs, embraces or touching other bodily parts aren’t – many people in Asia and other parts of the world are more conservative and such actions are interpreted as an offense or even a violation of one’s private space. This is why you should be careful with touching. Touching is considered rude in many cultures.
As you see, the differences in non verbal communication between cultures are very extensive. If you’re working in a multicultural context, it’s important to understand these differences and reflect your body language. This means when you need to communicate with people from different cultures, it makes sense to inform yourself in advance about their non verbal communication. This can save you a lot of embarrassment and misunderstanding. Of course, cultural stereotypes are just stereotypes, you can’t say that every single individual from a different culture has the same forms of non verbal communication. So as a conclusion, no matter where you are, you must remember that your body is always communicating, even when you’re not even speaking!